II snoring can be defined as the breath loud and harsh during sleep caused by vibration of the uvula and of the soft palate. Snoring may be favored by the presence of obstruction of the upper airways, the transient type (secretions stagnant in the nasopharynx or in the upper respiratory tract) or anatomical; in general, the snoring of a subject does not give rise to alarm, but the recent observation of increased morbidity and mortality in all age groups during sleep makes it necessary to distinguish between situations, para-physiological and morbid conditions linked to severe dysfunction of the regulation of the centre of the breath.
Breath stertoroso obstructive
Is the snoring regular and intermittent without pathological alterations of the breath, and in the absence of pathology cardiovascular. 20% of the population, with more than 45 years, has ronchi in his sleep.Common causes:- secretions are stagnant, in the nasopharynx or in the seat of the tracheobronchial high; conditions favorable to causing anatomical and functional hypertrophy of the turbinates, nasal polyps; macroglossia; hyperplasia of the uvula and/or soft palate; hypertrophy of the tonsils pharyngeal; abnormalities in the bone of the massive facial and mandibular;- motor dysfunction palatine.
Syndrome sleep apnea
It appears mostly in men of middle age, with an incidence of 2-4%, especially in hypertensive subjects, the obese, obstructive pulmonary disease or severe pulmonary heart chronic; occurs with pauses to abnormal breathing during sleep, alternating with breath, blowing, or stertoroso. You record a fall of oxygen in the blood, and this leads to frequent awakenings and restlessness motor. Are at risk of sudden death in subjects with >20 apneas/hour. In the context of this syndrome, we distinguish between:a. obstructive apnea: are there any deterioration and incoordination of motor activity of the respiratory muscles to the upper and lower.b. central sleep apnea: interruption of intermittent motor activity, respiratory failure stimulation panel;c. apnea mixed: combination of the previous two.The signs and symptoms. Ronchi stertorosi (100%), restlessness motor in his sleep, hypersomnia, depressed mood, headache on awakening, and decreased libido. The diagnosis requires in-patient centers pneumologici specialized and equipped for the recording of the track breathing in your sleep (polysomnography).
Treatment and preventive measures
Withdrawal from alcohol and benzodiazepines and other drugs that reduce the activity of the centre of the breath; decreased body weight; sleep with the head of the bed raised.Doxofillina, 200-400 mg in the evening. Oxygen therapy requires attention, because it may worsen hypercapnia, and prefer the nasal breathing positive (high-pressure through a anti snore strap nasal mask causes a pressure of 5-20 cm H2O in the respiratory tract, in order to maintain the patent in the larynx).